FLUENT – LAMINAR PIPE FLOW

Laminar Pipe Flow

Created using ANSYS 13.0. Tutorial instructions work with ANSYS 14.0 and 15.0. There are minor layout changes in ANSYS 15.0.

Problem Specification



Consider fluid flowing through a circular pipe of constant radius as illustrated above. The figure is not to scale. The pipe diameter D = 0.2 m and length L = 8 m Consider the inlet velocity to be constant over the cross-section and equal to 1 m/s. The pressure at the pipe outlet is 1 atm. Take density ρ = 1 kg/ m 3and coefficient of viscosity µ = 2 x 10 -3 kg/(m s). These parameters have been chosen to get a desired Reynolds number of 100 and don’t correspond to any real fluid.

Solve this problem numerically using ANSYS FLUENT. Present the following results:

  • Velocity vectors
  • Velocity magnitude contours
  • Pressure contours
  • Velocity profile at the outlet
  • Skin friction coefficient along the wall

Provide comparisons of the results with the full-developed analytical solution. Verify your results.

Geometry

Fluid Flow (FLUENT) Project Selection

On the left hand side of the workbench window, you will see a toolbox full of various analysis systems. To the right, you see an empty work space. This is the place where you will organize your project. At the bottom of the window, you see messages from ANSYS.

Left click (and hold) on Fluid Flow (FLUENT) , and drag the icon into the empty space in the Project Schematic. Your ANSYS window should now look comparable to the image below.

Since we selected Fluid Flow (FLUENT), each cell of the system corresponds to a step in the process of performing CFD analysis using FLUENT. Rename the project to Laminar Pipe.
We will work through each step from top down to obtain the solution to our problem.

Analysis Type

In the Project Schematic of the Workbench window, right click on Geometry and select Properties , as shown below.



The properties menu will then appear to the right of the Workbench window. Under Advance Geometry Options , change the Analysis Type to 2D as shown in the image below.

Launch Design Modeler

In the Project Schematic, double click on Geometry to start preparing the geometry.
At this point, a new window, ANSYS Design Modeler will be opened. You will be asked to select desired length unit. Use the default meter unit and clickOK .

Creating a Sketch

Start by creating a sketch on the XYPlane. Under Tree Outline, select XYPlane, then click on Sketching right before Details View. This will bring up theSketching Toolboxes.
Click Here for Select Sketching Toolboxes Demo
Click on the +Z axis on the bottom right corner of the Graphics window to have a normal look of the XY Plane.
Click Here for Select Normal View Demo
In the Sketching toolboxes, select Rectangle. In the Graphics window, create a rough Rectangle by clicking once on the origin and then by clicking once somewhere in the positive XY plane. (Make sure that you see a letter P at the origin before you click. The P implies that the cursor is directly over a point of intersection.) At this point you should have something comparable to the image below.

Dimensions

At this point the rectangle will be properly dimensioned.

Under Sketching Toolboxes, select Dimensions tab, use the default dimensioning tools. Dimension the geometry as shown in the following image.


Click Here for Higher Resolution
Under the Details View table (located in the lower left corner), set V1 = 0.1m and set H2 = 8m, as shown in the image below.


Click Here for Higher Resolution

Surface Body Creation

In order to create the surface body, first (Click) Concept > Surface From Sketches as shown in the image below.

This will create a new surface SurfaceSK1. Under Details View, select Sketch1 as the Base Objects  by selecting one of the lines of the sketch and by clicking apply.  Then select the thickness to be 0.1m and click Generate to generate the surface.

Saving

At this point, you can close the Design Modeler and go back to Workbench Project Page .

Save the project by clicking on the “Save As..” button, , which is located on the top of the Workbench Project Page . Save the project as “LaminarPipeFlow” in your working directory. When you save in ANSYS a file and a folder will be created. For instance if you save as “LaminarPipeFlow”, a “LaminarPipeFlow” file and a folder called “LaminarPipeFlow_files” will appear. In order to reopen the ANSYS files in the future you will need both the “.wbpj” file and the folder. If you do not have BOTH, you will not be able to access your project.

Fluid Flow (FLUENT) Project Selection

On the left hand side of the workbench window, you will see a toolbox full of various analysis systems. To the right, you see an empty work space. This is the place where you will organize your project. At the bottom of the window, you see messages from ANSYS.

Left click (and hold) on Fluid Flow (FLUENT) , and drag the icon into the empty space in the Project Schematic. Your ANSYS window should now look comparable to the image below.

Since we selected Fluid Flow (FLUENT), each cell of the system corresponds to a step in the process of performing CFD analysis using FLUENT. Rename the project to Laminar Pipe.
We will work through each step from top down to obtain the solution to our problem.

Analysis Type

In the Project Schematic of the Workbench window, right click on Geometry and select Properties , as shown below.



The properties menu will then appear to the right of the Workbench window. Under Advance Geometry Options , change the Analysis Type to 2D as shown in the image below.

Launch Design Modeler

In the Project Schematic, double click on Geometry to start preparing the geometry.
At this point, a new window, ANSYS Design Modeler will be opened. You will be asked to select desired length unit. Use the default meter unit and clickOK .

Creating a Sketch

Start by creating a sketch on the XYPlane. Under Tree Outline, select XYPlane, then click on Sketching right before Details View. This will bring up theSketching Toolboxes.
Click Here for Select Sketching Toolboxes Demo
Click on the +Z axis on the bottom right corner of the Graphics window to have a normal look of the XY Plane.
Click Here for Select Normal View Demo
In the Sketching toolboxes, select Rectangle. In the Graphics window, create a rough Rectangle by clicking once on the origin and then by clicking once somewhere in the positive XY plane. (Make sure that you see a letter P at the origin before you click. The P implies that the cursor is directly over a point of intersection.) At this point you should have something comparable to the image below.

Dimensions

At this point the rectangle will be properly dimensioned.

Under Sketching Toolboxes, select Dimensions tab, use the default dimensioning tools. Dimension the geometry as shown in the following image.


Click Here for Higher Resolution
Under the Details View table (located in the lower left corner), set V1 = 0.1m and set H2 = 8m, as shown in the image below.


Click Here for Higher Resolution

Surface Body Creation

In order to create the surface body, first (Click) Concept > Surface From Sketches as shown in the image below.

This will create a new surface SurfaceSK1. Under Details View, select Sketch1 as the Base Objects  by selecting one of the lines of the sketch and by clicking apply.  Then select the thickness to be 0.1m and click Generate to generate the surface.

Saving

At this point, you can close the Design Modeler and go back to Workbench Project Page .

Save the project by clicking on the “Save As..” button, , which is located on the top of the Workbench Project Page . Save the project as “LaminarPipeFlow” in your working directory. When you save in ANSYS a file and a folder will be created. For instance if you save as “LaminarPipeFlow”, a “LaminarPipeFlow” file and a folder called “LaminarPipeFlow_files” will appear. In order to reopen the ANSYS files in the future you will need both the “.wbpj” file and the folder. If you do not have BOTH, you will not be able to access your project.

Mesh

In this section the geometry will be meshed with 500 elements. That is, the pipe will be divided into 100 elements in the axial direction and 5 elements in the radial direction.

Launch Mesher

In order to begin the meshing process, go to the Workbench Project Page, then (Double Click) Mesh.

Default Mesh

In this section the default mesh will be generated. This can be carried out two ways. The first way is to (Right Click) Mesh > Generate Mesh, as shown in the image below.


The second way in which the default mesh can be generated is to (Click) Mesh > Generate Mesh as can be seen below.


Either method should give you the same results. The default mesh that you generate should look comparable to the image below.

Note that in Workbench there is generally at least two ways to implement actions as has been shown above. For, simplicity’s sake the “menu” method of implementing actions will be solely used for the rest of the tutorial.

Mapped Face Meshing

As can be seen above, the default mesh has irregular elements. We are interested in creating a grid style of mesh that can be mapped to a rectangular domain. This meshing style is called Mapped Face Meshing. In order to incorporate this meshing style (Click) Mesh Control > Mapped Face Meshingas can be seen below.


Now, the Mapped Face Meshing still must be applied to the pipe geometry. In order to do so, first click on the pipe body which should then highlight green. Next, (Click) Apply in the Details of Mapped Face Meshing table, as shown below.


This process is shown here
Now, generate the mesh by using either method from the “Default Mesh” section above. You should obtain a mesh comparable to the following image.

 

Edge Sizing

The desired mesh has specific number of divisions along the radial and the axial direction. In order to obtain the specified number of divisions Edge Sizingmust be used. The divisions along the axial direction will be specified first. Now, an Edge Sizing needs to be inserted. First, (Click) Mesh Control > Sizing as shown below.

Now, the geometry and the number of divisions need to be specified. First (Click) Edge Selection Filter, . Then hold down the “Control” button and then click the bottom and top edge of the rectangle. Both sides should highlight green. Next, hit Apply under the Details of Sizing table as shown below.

Now, change Type to Number of Divisions as shown in the image below.


Then, set Number of Divisions to 100 as shown below.


Follow the same procedure as for the edge sizing in the radial direction, except select the left and right side instead of the top and bottom and set theNumber of Division to 5. Then, generate the mesh by using either method from the “Default Mesh” section above. You should obtain the following mesh.


As it turns out, in the mesh above there are 540 elements, when there should be only 500. Mesh statistics can be found by clicking on Mesh in the Tree and then by expanding Statistics under the Details of Mesh table. In order to get the desired 500 element mesh the Behavior needs to be changed fromSoft to Hard for both Edge Sizing’s. In order to carry this out first Expand Mesh in the tree outline then click Edge Sizing and then change Behavior toHard under the Details of Edge Sizing table, as shown below.


Then set the Behavior to Hard for Edge Sizing 2. Next, generate the mesh using either method from the “Default Mesh” section above. You should then obtain the following 500 element mesh.



Radial Sizing

Create Named Selections

Here, the edges of the geometry will be given names so one can assign boundary conditions in Fluent in later steps. The left side of the pipe will be called “Inlet” and the right side will be called “Outlet”. The top side of the rectangle will be called “PipeWall” and the bottom side of the rectangle will be called “CenterLine” as shown in the image below.


In order to create a named selections first (Click) Edge Selection Filter, . Then click on the left side of the rectangle and it should highlight green. Next, right click the left side of the rectangle and choose Create Named Selection as shown below.

Enter Inlet and click OK, as shown below.




Now, create named selections for the remaining three sides and name them according to the diagram.

Save, Exit & Update

First save the project. Next, close the Mesher window. Then, go to the Workbench Project Page and click the Update Project button, .

Physics Setup

Your current Workbench Project Page should look comparable to the following image. You should have checkmarks to the right of Geometry and Mesh.



Next, the mesh and geometry data need to be read into FLUENT. To read in the data (Right Click) Setup > Refresh in the Workbench Project Page as shown in the image below. If the refresh option is not available, simply omit this step. 



After you click Update, a question mark should appear to the right of the Setup cell. This indicates that the Setup process has not yet been completed.

Launch Fluent

Double click on Setup in the Workbench Project Page which will bring up the FLUENT Launcher. When the FLUENT Launcher appears change the options to “Double Precision”, and then click OK as shown below.The Double Precision option is used to select the double-precision solver. In the double-precision solver, each floating point number is represented using 64 bits in contrast to the single-precision solver which uses 32 bits. The extra bits increase not only the precision, but also the range of magnitudes that can be represented. The downside of using double precision is that it requires more memory.


Click Here for Higher Resolution
Twiddle your thumbs a bit while the FLUENT interface starts up. This is where we’ll specify the governing equations and boundary conditions for our boundary-value problem. On the left-hand side of the FLUENT interface, we see various items listed under Problem Setup. We will work from top to bottom of the Problem Setup items to setup the physics of our boundary-value problem. On the right hand side, we have the Graphics pane and, below that, the Command pane.

Check and Display Mesh

First, the mesh will be checked to verify that it has been properly imported from Workbench. In order to obtain the statistics about the mesh (Click) Mesh > Info > Size, as shown in the image below.



Then, you should obtain the following output in the Command pane.



The mesh that was created earlier has 500 elements(5 Radial x 100 Axial). Note that in FLUENT elements are called cells. The output states that there are 500 cells, which is a good sign. Next, FLUENT will be asked to check the mesh for errors. In order to carry out the mesh checking procedure (Click) Mesh > Check as shown in the image below.



You should see no errors in the Command Pane. Now, that the mesh has been verified, the mesh display options will be discussed. In order to bring up the display options (Click) General > Mesh > Display as shown in the image below.



The previous step should cause the Mesh Display window to open, as shown below. Note that the Named Selections created in the meshing steps now appear.


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You should have all the surfaces shown in the above snapshot. Clicking on a surface name in the Mesh Display menu will toggle between select and unselect. Clicking Display will show all the currently selected surface entities in the graphics pane. Unselect all surfaces and then select each one in turn to see which part of the domain or boundary the particular surface entity corresponds to (you will need to zoom in/out and translate the model as you do this). For instance, if you select wall, outlet, and centerline and then click Display you should then obtain the following output in the graphics window.



Now, make sure all 5 items under Surfaces are selected. The button next to Surfaces selects all of the boundaries while the button deselects all of the boundaries at once. Once, all the 5 boundaries have been selected click Display, then close the Mesh Display window. The long, skinny rectangle displayed in the graphics window corresponds to our solution domain. Some of the operations available in the graphics window to interrogate the geometry and mesh are:

Translation: The model can be translated in any direction by holding down the Left Mouse Button and then moving the mouse in the desired direction.

Zoom In: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box from the Upper Left Hand Corner to the Lower Right Hand Corner over the area you want to zoom in on.

Zoom Out: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box anywhere from the Lower Right Hand Corner to the Upper Left Hand Corner.

Use these operations to zoom in and interrogate the mesh.

Define Solver Properties

In this section the various solver properties will be specified in order to obtain the proper solution for the laminar pipe flow. First, the axisymmetric nature of the geometry must be specified. Under General > Solver > 2D Space select Axisymmetric as shown in the image below.


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Next, the Viscous Model parameters will be specified. In order to open the Viscous Model Options Models > Viscous – Laminar > Edit…. By default, the Viscous Model options are set to laminar, so no changes are needed. Click Cancel to exit the menu.
Now, the Energy Model parameters will be specified. In order to open the Energy Model Options Models > Energy-Off > Edit…. For incompressible flow, the energy equation is decoupled from the continuity and momentum equations. We need to solve the energy equation only if we are interested in determining the temperature distribution. We will not deal with temperature in this example. So leave the Energy Equation set to off and click Cancel to exit the menu.

Define Material Properties

Now, the properties of the fluid that is being modeled will be specified. The properties of the fluid were specified in the Problem Specification section. In order to create a new fluid (Click) Materials > Fluid > Create/Edit… as shown in the image below.



In the Create/Edit Materials menu set the Density to 1kg/m^3 (constant) and set the Viscosity to 2e-3 kg/(ms) (constant) as shown in the image below.


Click Here for Higher Resolution
Click Change/Create. Close the window.

Define Boundary Conditions

At this point the boundary conditions for the four Named Selections will be specified. The boundary condition for the inlet will be specified first.

Inlet Boundary Condition

In order to start the process (Click) Boundary Conditions > inlet > Edit… as shown in the following image.


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Note that the Boundary Condition Type should have been automatically set to velocity-inlet. Now, the velocity at the inlet will be specified. In theVelocity Inlet menu set the Velocity Specification Method to Components, and set the Axial-Velocity (m/s) to 1 m/s, as shown below.


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Then, click OK to close the Velocity Inlet menu.

Outlet Boundary Condition

First, select outlet in the Boundary Conditions menu, as shown below.


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As can be seen in the image above the Type should have been automatically set to pressure-outlet. If the Type is not set to pressure-outlet, then set it to pressure-outlet. Now, no further changes are needed for the outlet boundary condition.

Centerline Boundary Condition

Select centerline in the Boundary Conditions menu, as shown below.


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As can be seen in the image above the Type has been automatically set to wall which is not correct. Change the Type to axis, as shown below.


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When the dialog boxes appear click Yes to change the boundary type. Then click OK to accept “centerline” as the zone name.

Pipe Wall Boundary Condition

First, select pipe_wall in the Boundary Conditions menu, as shown below.


Click Here for Higher Resolution
As can be seen in the image above the Type should have been automatically set to wall. If the Type is not set to wall, then set it to wall. Now, no further changes are needed for the pipe_wall boundary condition.

Save

In order to save your work (Click)File > Save Project as shown in the image below.

Continue to Next page…Click Here

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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